While writing an essay a writer uses various referencing styles depending on instructor instructions. A referencing style is an established referencing system made of consistent rules. When writing any academic work, a clear essay referencing style is employed. Referencing is crucial because:
- It ensures you acknowledge the use of academic ideas of another author or authors
- It proves that you have done your research
- It prevents ideas that you have plagiarized ideas of other people
There are various referencing styles and the choice depends on the instructions of an instructor, specifications of a publication, or specifications of a faculty or a university. Currently, the most common are:
- Modern Language Association of America (MLA)
- American Psychological Association (APA)
The following details are required to write a correct reference;
- Name of the author
- Publishing date
- Page numbers, volume number, and other relevant information
The good thing is that a reliable essay writing service offers guidelines on all referencing formats essential for producing first-class in-text citation and bibliography. Each referencing style has its own set of rules and formats. However, there have been some changes in the common referencing styles.
Ten Latest Developments in Essay Writing in Regard To referencing
- Retrieval date has been dropped before a URL in APA
Before the 6th APA edition, a retrieval date was required before a URL. With the latest developments, the retrieval date has been dropped unless the source is prone to frequent changes. Instead of ‘Retrieved on…from’, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. For instance:
|George, M. (2018). Essay Writing Service. Retrieved from https://essaymojo.com/apa/style-citation-guide/ -6th-edition.php|
- Latest APA requires the use of Digital Object Identifiers
Digital Object Identifiers refer to unique numbers that are assigned to each article. The number remains constant across all database because its intention is to identify specific articles. Although APA emphasis use of DOI, it is a new concept and therefore not every database has begun indexing them yet. When written with the purpose of use as an acronym, DOI is written in capital letters. When it is written as part of the citation, it is written in small letters, doi.
Example of a journal article with a DOI;
|Wilson, L. (2006). Conflict Management. Educational Research Review, 23(1), 1-25. doi:17.1007/s00146-077-0148-0|
- Latest APA requires the use of “…” instead of “et al.” in case of many authors
In APA referencing style, use of “et al.” has been replaced by the use of “…”. This is in the case where authors are more than seven. For example, previous it was like:
|Simon, J. D., Kyle, V., Zao, T., Willy, T., Grace, J., Steve, Y., et al.|
This has changed to:
|Simon, J. D., Kyle, V., Zao, T., Willy, T., Grace, J., Steve, Y.,…Mary, K.|
When authors are less than seven, all names are listed in references.
- Latest APA requires the use of domain name for well-known sites
When referencing an article from a website that is well-known, the latest APA developments requires only the domain name of the site. For instance, if an article is retrieved from the Guardian, http://www.guardian.com, is listed. However, if the website is less known, then the full URL is listed.
- Current APA requires the inclusion of country
Previously, it was not a must to cite state or country especially when the city was famous for publishing. The reference looked like the following example.
|Nelly, T. (2009). Principles of Marketing (2nd ed.). London: Academic.|
However, with the latest developments, a country must always be cited especially when the city is non-American. If the city is American, then a state code is included. Therefore the current reference looks like the following example;
|Nelly, T. (2009). Principles of Marketing (2nd ed.). London, England: Academic.|
In case the city is American, let say, New York, the reference will look like the following example;
Nelly, T. (2009). Principles of Marketing (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Academic.
- Latest MLA requires the use of volume, number, and page numbers
Latest developments in MLA require a clear explanation of numbers when citing articles in scholarly journals. This involves the use of the words volume, number, and page numbers together with numbers. Previous the citation would look like:
|Lenny, Jamie. “In History.” Callao 24.2: 620-26. Web|
Currently, it should look like this:
|Lenny, Jamie. “In History.” Callao Vol. 24, Number. 2, pp. 620-26.|
- New MLA omits medium and city of publication
With the latest developments in referencing, citing medium or city of publication while using MLA referencing style is no longer a must. Only the most important information is included, that is, author, article title, publisher, and date. Previously, the medium and city of publication were required in referencing.
- MLA requires the inclusion of URLs with https omitted
Previously, MLA referencing style left the inclusion of URLs to the discretion of the instructor. However, latest developments require that URLs are included in the citation. URLs enables tracing of information online. It is, however, important to note the required omission of https. Additionally, new MLA requires citing of digital object identifiers. If you want to go through a complete MLA reference guide click here
- New MLA requires the full name of the publisher
Currently, the full names of the publisher are given when using MLA referencing style. In case an article has co-publishers, the forward slash is used in separating their names. Additionally, when an organization is both the publisher and the author, the author is omitted and the name is used as publisher.
- Citing accessed date is now optional
With the latest development, citing the date of accessing an article online is optional. This means that writing ‘accessed on’ can be replaced with ‘accessed from’.
In conclusion, referencing styles have gone through various changes. It is important to guide students in identifying and implementing these changes in the right way.